发布时间:2021-05-04 发表于话题:西方文化发源于 点击:38 当前位置:黄埔网 > 教育 > 【龙腾网】为何四大古代文明都不是起源于欧洲? 手机阅读

原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:翻译熊 转载请注明出处

Why didn't any of the four ancient civilizations originate from Europe?


原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:翻译熊 转载请注明出处

Joshua Moshiach, Executive Assistant (2013-present)
…because of this little guy, and itsevolution.
Wheat was a wild plant native tohighlands of the Anatolian Plateau. It took the hunter-gatherers of Anatolia afew thousand years to domesticate wheat.
At first, wheat was another wild plantthat people could eat. Then, people started to cultivate wheat, and the processof sextive breeding started.
Wild wheatwas a mountain plant that liked cold snowy winters and hot dry summer. It tookquite some time to grow this plant in Mesopotamia, where winters are warmer.Once a suitable breed was achieved, everything changed. Mesopotamia, Egypt andthe Indus Valley thrived with abundance of food, and the first civilizationswere born.
NorthernEurope wasn't suitable for wheat cultivation. European summers were wetter andcooler. The landscape was filled with forest. It took thousands of years forthe Northern Europeans to develop a breed of wheat good enough to compete withthe Mesopotamian wheat, and to cut all the forests for fields.

Joshua Moshiach, 执行助理 (2013至今)



Derek Kent, former Support Worker (2005-2016)
The oldest civilizations that I am aware ofare in order from the oldest : Mesopotamia, The Indus Valley, Egypt and TheMayan’s. Basically it boils down to climate, river systems and the fertility ofthe land. There are many others. At that time Europe was mostly forest. Youwill note that none of these civilizations was started in a forest. Europedoesn’t have a stable climate. It has seasons that are far more extreme. Theland was nowhere near as fertile. Plenty of game to hunt but not much free landon which to plant the crops necessary to feed a city.
You need an urban center, because thensome population can do things other than work to feed themselves. You get alarger leisured class with more free time to think. Elsewhere people are toobusy surviving to work out a writing system and civil code.
Derek Kent, 前护工(2005-2016)


Jeff Verkouille, traveller, expat, student of the world,still learning...
If I remember correctly Jared Diamond hasa useful map in his text Guns Germs and Steel early on showing the spread ofdomesticated crops across Eurasia.
Given the starting point in the Tigrisand Euphrates river valleys the knowledge of agriculture and the crop varietiesnecessary for different local climates took awhile to spread outward.
Europeans were still largely herders whenSumeria, Egypt, and the Indus Valley civilizations were waxing and waning.China was, as always, its own unique civilization, creating its own path farfrom the other three who enjoyed robust trade among each other. China grew adifferent set of crops as well, with rice the principle grain, contrasting towheat in the Indus River Valley, Sumeria, and Egypt.
As the crops and the the knowledge ofagriculture expanded people began to settle down and build permanentstructures. Archeology digs reveal a predictable pattern of settlements, towns,and eventually cities radiating out from the Middle East over time anddistance, documenting the spread of civilization.
The eastern Mediterranean shoresprospered first, then islands across the sea, and finally colonies from theGreeks, Phoenicians and others appear in Africa and Italy and Spain. The reallatecomers were the northern Europeans, who would not be tamed until well intothe Middle Ages.
Now woven among the threads of thisconventional narrative are acknowledgements that various local exceptions cropup: Malta has ruins going back to the Neolithic and Stonehenge is but the mostfamous of northern European cultural remnants, not the oldest nor only. Soaspects of civilization did spread to Europe, and there is evidence forhomegrown local cultures with a fair degree of sophistication.
But if we’re talking written records andtechnology the big players are closer to the starting point in Iraq.





Irene Fuerst
Not true. The Minoans traded with theEgyptians.


Bill William, BS, MA, All but Dissertat Economics& History, All But Dissertation University of Florida, Economics; BA NM...
And the Minoans lived where? Besides,Egypt was ‘ancient’ even before the Minoans could write.


Irene Fuerst
The Minoans lived on Crete. You knowthat. They were the first European Bronze Age civilization. Pictures of Cretansappear on Egyptian tombs. Egyptian civilization lasted for so long that othercultures could rise and fall and still be contemporaneous. In fact, the Induscivilization did that.


Bill William, BS, MA, All but Dissertat Economics& History, All But Dissertation University of Florida, Economics; BA NM...
If you were living on a Swiss lake in2000 BC would have been very cold and very hungry. The Helveti that JuliusCaeser intercepted were not traveling south to get an early seat at the Monacotables.


Irene Fuerst
You would have been cold and hungry formuch of Europe’s history.


JasonAlmendra, Most Viewed WriterHistory 6Feb19/14May19 392k views
Europe north of the Alps has very toughclayey soil. There wasn't enough of a population to require writing. The easyto plow river valleys of the Huang basin, Mesopotamia, & Ancient Egyptgained larger populations to require a bureaucracy. Meso-America has freshwater cenotes. Europe's population only expanded when the horse collar wasintroduced from the Far East c.1000 AD.


Plamen Galabov, Self Employed Video producer andPhotographer (1990-present)
The climate and the natural resources arethe logical answer to your . However can we consider the ? Look at this one;
“Bulgaria's Varna Gold Treasure isconsidered the oldest processed gold in the world dating back to thetime of the Chalcolithic (Aeneolithic, Copper Age) Varna Culture(usually dated to 4400-4100 BC). It was discovered in 1972 in the socalled Varna Chalcolithic Necropolis”.
A little is known about the civilizationaround and from the lands now under the Black sea. The human history stillkeeps secrets. What we read and learn is based on the discoveries and knowledgesystemised in the last few centuries. Even discovered and well studied theEgyptian pyramids or the amazing creations of the South American civilization areenigma for the modern science.

Plamen Galabov,视频制作人和摄影师 (1990至今)

Sanjog Patel
Europe’s ancient civilisation wasdestroyed and usurped by the Romans. Etruscans are responsible for the progressof Rome. And Grimaldi culture was whitewashed over the years. Civilisationsflourish under polytheism and then history gets rewritten by invadingmonotheistic dictatorship


David Montaigne, Historian, author on controversialtopics like pole shifts
Though my first thought was climate, mynext was that civilization grew best at the mouths and deltas of major rivervalleys like the Nile, the Tigris/Euphrates, the Indus, and the Yangtze…
There are theories that assume the risingocean levels thousands of years ago suddenly flooded what is now theMediterranean Sea and then the Black Sea, as waters crested over and theneroded away what is now the Pillars of Hercules/Strait of Gibraltar, and thenthe Bosporus. Any ancient civilization at the low end of southern Europe’s riverslies under these seas.