怪物美杜莎和尼普顿的关系是什么,美杜莎到底是与尼普顿还是与波塞冬生下怪物后代?

发布时间:2021-11-11 发表于话题:波塞冬与美杜莎的故事 点击:138 当前位置:黄埔网 > 教育 > 怪物美杜莎和尼普顿的关系是什么,美杜莎到底是与尼普顿还是与波塞冬生下怪物后代? 手机阅读
首先告知题主一声:因为看到不正确的人物译名与标点符号心里有点不太舒服,我就把问题给编辑了一下。这个问题本来百度一下就能解决的,不过既然问题都被我编辑了,我就顺手把它给答了吧...

题主觉得美杜莎的故事有很多版本,其实“有很多版本”才是古希腊神话的原生态。古代神话一般都是经过数千年不断吸收、淘汰与进化的产物,是动态的(这句话我之前好像也提过)。因为没有一本如《圣经》一样权威性的神话读本,这种多样性与动态在古希腊神话里尤甚。

关于美杜莎的外貌,古希腊有两类刻画:


(公元前5世纪作品)

一类将美杜莎的面部完全刻画成怪物。这类刻画,一般被认为遵从了关于美杜莎身世的最初设定,即她是海神福耳库斯与刻托的女儿,外貌天生如此。


(公元前400-385年间作品)

在另一类里,美杜莎依然保持了人类女性的面孔,怪物的属性则主要由蛇发与翅膀等特征体现。这类刻画一般被认为遵从了关于美杜莎身世的后期设定,即美杜莎曾经是一位美丽的凡人公主,因为被波塞冬/尼普顿在雅典娜/密涅瓦的神殿里所强奸,玷污了雅典娜的圣所,才被变为怪物。

古罗马诗人奥维德对此版本有详细介绍:

...He [Perseus] told of his long journeys, of dangers that were not imaginary ones, what seas and lands he had seen below from his high flight, and what stars he had brushed against with beating wings. He still finished speaking before they wished. Next one of the many princes asked why Medusa, alone among her sisters, had snakes twining in her hair. The guest replied ‘Since what you ask is worth the telling, hear the answer to your . She was once most beautiful, and the jealous aspiration of many suitors. Of all her beauties none was more admired than her hair: I came across a man who recalled having seen her. They say that Neptune, lord of the seas, violated her in the temple of Minerva. Jupiter’s daughter turned away, and hid her chaste eyes behind her aegis. So that it might not go unpunished, she changed the Gorgon’s hair to foul snakes. And now, to terrify her enemies, numbing them with fear, the goddess wears the snakes, that she created, as a breastplate.

Ovid: The Metamorphoses, Book IV


第一类故事比较简单。而针对第二类故事,有很多人试图解读它背后包含的所谓深层次含义——比如雅典娜/密涅瓦将被强奸的女性变成怪物,是古希腊对被强奸所带来的羞耻与不荣誉的一种隐喻之类的。我个人对这样的“解读”一直不太感冒。不过,对于古希腊神话,每个人当然可以有自己的理解。

不过不管在哪种版本里,雅典娜/密涅瓦都没有出于对美杜莎美貌的嫉妒而将她变为怪物

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标签组:[雅典娜] [波塞冬] [美杜莎

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